Guidelines In Making A Printed Circuit Board

PCBCreating a printed circuit board could be costly if you don’t know how to really do it. The designer needs to know how to go about making PCBs from reading the guidelines to quality control, and then testing the printed circuit boards which is the final step. Click here Pcbnet for more idea about PCBs. If you follow these basic guidelines we’ve listed below, you would be able to reduce the cost of your PCB and be able to reduce or minimize errors.

Here Are The Guidelines:

1. A printed circuit board is usually rectangular in shape, but you can also create printed circuit boards with different shapes like polygons. When creating a board, start with a .05” grid. The lower left corner should start with 0,0.

2. Stick parts on a .05” grid. Follow this rule all the time.

3. If you’re using LED, always label it. Example things to be labeled: status, power, lock, D4, etc.)

4. It’s important to group essential components together.

5. 7mil is the minimum annual ring size, while 15 mil is the minimum drill size. 8 mil is still acceptable though.

6. Power lines should have thicker traces to make it easier to locate.

7. Always go with the 45 degree corners. As much as possible, avoid 90 degree corners.

8. If you know how to really work your way on a printed circuit board and you want to break down complex designs into smaller bits, add color notes into it.

9. A reference designator, like a pin should always be used. Always use a solder mask when adding a designator.

10. All designators would need a silkscreen indicator that shows all the dimensions of the printed circuit boards.Printed-circuit-board

These are some of the guidelines that you need to follow should you plan to create your own printed circuit board. It’s quite complicated, but not really difficult to follow.

So how do you actually make printed circuit boards?

Designing one is a long process. It will require a lot of time, energy, effort, focus, and money. If the designer knows CAD ( Computer Aided Design), it will be a lot easier for him to design printed circuit boards.

The first step would be to determine what kind of electronic device you will be working with. If it’s a simple device then you will need a single- layer PCB. On the other hand, if you’re working with complicated device such as a computer, you will need a multi-layer PCB. More materials will be used for this particular design.

As soon as you have already figured it out, check online if there are designs that you can follow for the PCB. Most manufacturers can offer theirs for free so long as you don’t do any modification on them. Otherwise, you would have to create your own design.

Next step is to decide whether you will be using the newest technology which is the Surface Mount, or you would go for the older technology which is the Through Hole Technology.

To make a PCB, you need to gather all your raw materials first. Before you assemble all the materials, you need to make sure the place is clean. Otherwise, the PCB will be contaminated.

A glass fiber is the most common substrate used in PCBs. You can also use the cheaper ones for most household devices. If you’re not really selling the device and it’s not too complicated, go with the more affordable substrate.
PCBAs soon as you’ve decided on the substrate, the epoxy resin which acts like an adhesive is mixed with the copper oil. To keep panels from moving, they are staked together and holes are drilled out. Once done, they then etch the circuit pattern to the panel. The plating is done with tin- lead, nickel then with gold. The last step would be the quality control. We’ll tell you something important though – this process takes time as the PCB still need to undergo various quality control tests before it is tested for functionality.

If you want to purchase printed circuit board, So visit and get a free quote. For more details contact to us.


Six Reasons Why Movable Cubicles are the Way to Go When Moving Homes


You have probably experienced having to ask a friend of yours if you could borrow his van so you can use it to put your things in when it is time for you to move homes.  There’s a good chance that it turned out to be a bad idea since you had to make several trips to finish your move.  In all likelihood, your friend’s van was not big enough to carry all your stuff in one go.  Too bad you did not really have any other choice at that time.  Today, however, you can say goodbye to sweating it out when you need to move houses.  You simply have to turn to movable cubicles.

These days, it is more convenient to haul all your boxes from your old house to your new house using movable cubicles.  We at give you a number of options when it comes to moveable storage cubicles and containers.  When you have made your choice, we will bring it to your house so you can pack and load your stuff in it.  Our containers are spacious enough to fit all your items.

Aside from convenience, here are six other things which make movable cubicles the perfect choice for moving:

1. It is easier to get items into the cubicle

A moving truck poses risks. Since the container is above ground given that it sits on top of wheels, you will need to use a ramp so you can get the items inside. This makes getting heavy items such as furniture very difficult in some occasions. With the help of moving containers, the risk of pushing heavy furniture up a ramp is eliminated almost completely, since the container sits on ground level.  There is no need to use any special tricks to get items inside.  Just carry them there and you are good to go.

Movable Cubicle

2. It is cost effective

A professional moving company can actually cost you more money that just renting a container. If you opt for the moving container, you and your friends can move your items into the container and the moving company will simply pick up the container and move it to your new home. You will only technically be paying for the container rental and the moving services.  Since no professional workforce was involved, the usual fee you have to pay to the movers will not be your problem anymore.

3. Your solutions to storage are very flexible

Companies that rent moving containers offer more than just one container size. Therefore, this will provide you with a lot of freedom in choosing the right container which will be able to fit all of the items you own so that you do not have to go back to pick up items you have left behind.

4. You also have greater security

Moving containers have special locks in them and only you can open them with your own key. In addition, the container is moved into your premises and is directly sent to your chosen destination when you are done packing. With this kind of security feature, you are sure that all of your items are well protected.

Portable Storage Container

5. Moving items is much safer with the use of movable cubicles

The moving trucks that will pick up your container use a special lift system to place the container on the truck without moving any of the items inside.

6. You even have international delivery options

Moving to another country? You do not need to worry about moving items overseas. A majority of professional moving companies can only operate locally. On the other hand, there are a lot of movable container companies that are capable of making moving overseas easier for you.

There is no need to go old school and exert too much effort when you need to move houses.

Author Bio

It’s time that you move with the times and consider taking advantage of movable cubicles.

Purpose Of Challenge Coins

Ever saw those big coins that ranged from 1.5 to 3 inches in diameter and have an emblem engraved on them? You might have thought them cool and at one point, you wrote them in your wish list. Don’t worry as you can have one by buying it from souvenir shops. Of course, it’s not an official coin used by the military. These coins are called challenge coins and you might have seen some especially in spy movies. But what is the purpose of these coins? It could also be very varied.

Following Are The Purpose Of Challenge Coins:

The purpose of the coins ranged from collection to awards and even entertainment. Its most common and important role though, is still identification.

A challenge coin embodies the spirit of the organization and reflects its personality and image to people. It serves a reminder that the organization is not only an abstract entity but a group consisting of real people. Giving a coin to another is like giving a part of the company’s soul. It is for this reason that other people are very particular with coin design.

Challenge Coin

These coins are very varied and come in many shapes and sizes

You might not know but a challenge coin could be in the form of a dog tag or a beer opener. It could also be packaged in different ways depending on the intended purpose. Colors also range from gold to bronze. In fact, you can design and make one if you wish.

However, challenge coins are not only limited to military use. And aside from using the coins to get possible free drinks when in a bar through the well-known coin check challenge, you can also use the coins as an award or as a sign of acknowledgement for a person’s achievements. In a corporate environment, these coins can be used as a way to celebrate reaching company milestones. In schools, an athlete for example, could be given a challenge coin for a job well done. It increases productivity as more people would want to have recognition in the long run.

These days, business organizations and even fraternities issue their own challenge coins to their members to increase productivity or encourage camaraderie among members. The coins are also popular in police and fire departments. The media, in a way, also fuels the trend by promoting different movies by selling collectible coins.You can’t just resist completing a set of collectibles, especially if it’s from your favorite movie. It is more or less like collecting stamps and can be completely addicting.


Challenge coins can also be given as a gift

After all, most coins have such amazing designs on them. You could easily wow a friend by buying coins for his or her birthday. Non-profit organizations also give these coins as a thank you gift to those who have supported them in their endeavors. If you ever donated or contributed something to a non-profit organization, especially one related to the military, you might receive one as acknowledgement. But of course, you shouldn’t expect compensation when volunteering. You’re not helping people just for the sake of getting coins, right?

On the other hand, the coins also promote the feeling of belongingness. Having a physical representation of your connection to a certain group would make you feel closer to everybody. To some, these coins even represent a bond that’s comparable only to that shared by members of a family.

It cannot be denied that it feels good to own challenge coins. These serve as another kind of trophy you can keep and show to your house guest. Such coins would surely be an interesting topic during friendly conversations.

Using Household Iron to Securely Attach Iron on Patches

When it comes to embroidered iron on patches, using household iron can greatly help. All you need to do is gather the essential items and follow the basic steps. The usual patchwork has been easy for hobbyists, enabling them to enjoying a range of designs. Garments including old pairs of jeans are designed to hide holes and other noticeable damage. That way, you can use them again instead of buying a new pair. Read on to discover how patches are ironed on clothes for permanent patching.

Patches may be underrated as marketing items to deliver the message across, but their use has been really practical and effective to individuals across the globe. In fact, embroidered patches are being used by people all over the world now. And with the advanced methods of attaching patches onto clothes, we enjoy better alternatives to make the most of these creative patterns. Learn how to attach patches by checking out the tips and insights provided on this site.

Iron on Patches

Items Needed and the Basic Steps to be Followed

You will need an auto-shut off, household iron as the main equipment along with an aluminum-covered cardboard piece and pressing cloth. The cardboard covered with aluminum or heat-safe backing fabric will facilitate safe ironing. Note that the pressing cloth should be smooth, muslin fabric, or cotton to provide comfortable surface when ironing the patch onto the garment. Below are the detailed steps to help you attach the iron on patches in a firmer way:

  • Set your household iron to dry mode by pressing the button in the setting.
  • Pre-heat the iron to cotton mode if you’re not sure of the fabric you’ll be using.
  • Place the patch in the desired position and cover it using the pressing cloth.
  • Position the backing material underside the garment with the use of iron board. It will keep the heat in the patch and fabric so that the process will be faster and more secure.
  • Press the household iron onto the patch and spread the heat in a vertical motion within 25-40 seconds so that the patch will stick right away. Don’t move the iron back and forth or in a circular motion.
  • If possible, you can turn the fabric upside down or inside out to make sure that the adhesives are strongly attached to the material.
  • Let the patch cool completely.
  • Check the patches’ edges using your fingernail to tell if it’s locked.
  • If not, you may repeat the process and iron the fabric once again with an increased amount of heat. But still make sure that it will not damage the cloth due to overheating.

For some caution, don’t remove the iron on patches once the adhesives are damaged or you fail your initial attempt to attach the patches. Just do the procedures again and be sure to do it right this time. The trick is to let the iron generate enough heat so that the adhesives will easily stick to the fabric. However, always check the heat because if it’s too much, it will burn or scorch the patch along with the cloth. By following these tips, you are sure to benefit from long-term adhesion.

Iron Patch

For many reasons, people are now taking advantage of iron on patches when decorating their jeans, jackets, and other everyday outfits. To help you understand the importance of patches today, the following are some of the benefits you can get:

  • Affordability – iron on patches are more reasonable compared to direct embroidery. In fact, manufacturing costs were reduced in order to help create more patches that people can afford.
  • Versatility – the application of patches is unlimited. No matter where you want to attach them, you can achieve the exact design that you’ve always wanted. You can apply them in your caps, jackets, sweaters, shirts, and other outfits.
  • Collectability – if you want to build your brand or company image, patches can also help you get recognized. They can be a collector’s item with the uniqueness and value they have. You can find antique patches on selected shops including here on our website.
  • Durability – patches can survive washing, drying, and cleaning cycles without suffering damage. As a result, you can enjoy longer lifecycle of your favorite outfits at home.

When it comes to style, you’ll never go wrong in choosing our iron on patches available online. We have plethora of choices including modern patterns, classic designs, and universal styles. It even helps those who want to stay unique with the use of personalized patches made by reliable patch manufacturers like us. If you are interested to know more about our products and services, check out the webpage or contact us today.

5 Key Factors In Choosing The Most Suitable Golf Grips

Most novice golfers only know a little about the type of grip they use, and pay even less attention to the importance of choosing the most suitable golf grips. The ignorance of the law excuses no one, and the same goes with playing golf – ignorance regarding the importance of having suitable and effective golf grip can cause you your game.

There are lots of suppliers and merchants for all your golf needs, but not all can give you the quality merchandise at affordable prices. Golf is a rather lavish sport, and it is also extremely rewarding. Novice golfers who have limited funds to support their hobby should be prudent in choosing the supplier first. Supplier like offers affordable golf equipment and accessories that can give lots of advantages to amateur and professional golfers.

Now, there are 5 things that you need to consider when choosing your golf grips. Follow them and you are a step closer in bagging your win.

Choose the Right Grip Size

Golf ClubsKnow that using an improperly fitted golf grip can cost you 3 to 4 strokes on each round. Imagine the overall impact on your game. There are four basic sizes for the golf grip: oversize, midsize, standard, and undersize. You can achieve further customization by adding layers of tape when you install your golf grip.

A too small grip can help promote extra hand action. It usually gives way to pulling the ball. A too large grip can limit the pronation of the wrist. Around 75% of golfers use the wrong size of grips.

Texture of the Surface

The golf grip also comes in different textures. There are golfers who want a more abrasive and coarse grip texture and there are also others who want to only feel moderate roughness when holding their clubs. Remember that the primary function of a golf grip is to prevent your hands from slipping and give you full control over your swing.

The Material of the Golf Grip

GolfMost golf grips are made of rubber or synthetic rubber, which are durable and come in various colors and styles. There are golf grip manufacturers that create their own material for their grips.

A golf grip made of cord weave is popular among golfers who need to play in a humid or wet environment. It is also suitable for players who perspire a lot. The cord weave can provide extra traction to prevent the hands from slipping.

There’s also thermo-plastic material, which offers a softer grip as well as tacky feel.

Firmness of the Grip

You need to test the golf grip in order to determine if it offers the right firmness that you seek. Firm grips are usually the favorite among PGA professionals and tour players. The firm grips offer light-pressure grip while giving amazing stability.

There are golfers who prefer grips with softer feel. The golfers who usually choose the soft grip has low hand strength or swing speeds. The soft grips tend to give a tackier feel, yet they don’t provide the torsion control and stability of the firm golf grips.

Different Weather Conditions

Golf clubIt is advisable to prepare different grips for different weather conditions. It is a known fact that the whole world is experiencing freakish weather. You will never know when it’s going to rain suddenly or becomes too humid. As mentioned earlier, the material cord weave is good for players with wet hands. If you are not comfortable with cord weave, then it is best to choose a golf grip with heavy pattern or rough surface texture to give you the traction that you need.

Smooth grips made of polymers or plastic are not recommended to use during wet conditions. They won’t be able to prevent your hands from slipping.

Don’t neglect your golf grips and make sure that they can give you the right traction and comfort that you need. It only takes a few minutes to inspect your grips. You must replace your grips immediately if you feel that they no longer provide the traction that you need. Don’t wait another day before you replace them to avoid trouble later. It is also important to inspect all of your golf equipment and accessories on a regular basis even if you don’t have to compete.

Characteristics Of An Excellent Motivational Speaker

These days, motivational speakers are a dime a dozen. Some of them are great and some of them offer overpriced services that under deliver and short change people. Some are so awful that after the talk is over, people ask for their money back.

If you want to join in this kind of profession, you should possess most, if not all, of these characteristics to work excellently as a motivational speaker.

1. Have the right knowledge/diligent with research

As a motivational speaker, people will be looking at you and listening to you for at least an hour. In some instances, like in the case of workshops, seminars and training, you will need to talk a lot longer. To be believable and credible, you have to know by heart the thing that you are discussing. If you have the right knowledge about the thing that you are talking about then everything will flow naturally.
Motivational speakerYou won’t even need notes and won’t feel flustered whenever somebody questions your authority on the topic. You will feel confident at discussing the topic because you are 100% certain about your knowledge.

You also have to do your research diligently before every speaking engagement to give the audience the right information. Being diligent also means that you check and double check your facts so that you won’t mislead your audience with the wrong information.

2. Authenticity and confidence

Be yourself and let your personality shine while you are speaking. A great motivational speaker uses his own talents and strengths to connect to the audience. You may watch other speakers while they do their thing to learn from them, but that doesn’t mean you have to copy their style. If you are good at making jokes and have a comedic personality then you can make that your signature style.

If you are better at delivering serious and powerful speeches then don’t try to be comedic just because this is what’s in demand. Your speech will only sound forced and rehearsed if you keep trying to talk like somebody else. Be confident in your abilities and your own style of talking.

3. Passionate
Keynote speakerSome of the best motivational speakers are the ones who truly believe in their cause. They are the ones who live and breathe their cause as if it will bring world peace and end hunger. They are the ones who are passionate and are always excited to tell people about the thing that they believe in. If you project passion and excitement towards your topic, people will feel your passion too.

4. Engaging/connects easily with the audience

We here at know that to connect with the audience, it is crucial to capture their attention at the start of the talk with something that they can relate to. When people relate to what you are saying you are more likely to keep their attention throughout the entire duration of the speech.

Some speakers use the shock and awe method while others start with a captivating story related to the topic. Whatever method you use, you must capture the audience’s attention immediately. Make them want to listen to you by giving them something to think about as soon as you start talking. Engage them by making your speech exciting and dynamic. Keep it fresh and give audience something that they might not know to keep their interest.

5. Clear speaking voice
SpeakerTo keep your audience’s attention, you have to modulate your voice and speak clearly. Don’t mumble or whisper as these makes you seem like you don’t know what you are talking about. Practice talking out loud, but don’t make your speech seem too rehearsed. Try to speak as naturally as much as possible.

Try to record yourself as you talk to see how you can improve. Add a few movements to emphasize a point and to make your talk more dynamic, but don’t keep moving around the stage too much. Otherwise the audience may get dizzy following your movements that they focus on that instead of your speech.

6. Empathy

Empathy is a great characteristic to have if you want to be a good motivational speaker. Put yourself in the audience’s shoes and think about what they want to know. Think about their worries, challenges and concerns as this will give you a clue as to why they signed up for your talk. Then create a speech that addresses these concerns. The best motivational speakers are those who can identify with their audience and have had some form of similar experience as they had.



Loans are very important in the lives of people, especially those who urgently need financing. Individuals and companies need loans because most of the time, their financial resources are not enough to pay for their respective obligations and expenses. Individuals borrow money to make big purchases such as buying a car, or to pay for monthly expenses such as rent, water, or electricity bills. On the other hand, companies need loans to pay for their current debts or to buy additional properties to be used for expansion.


Loans, however, are burdensome when borrowers cannot pay on the due date. If these loans remain unpaid, the lenders may file a lawsuit against them to compel them to pay it. The borrowers may be compelled to sell some or all of their properties depending on the unpaid amount, or in case another person owes them money, that person may be compelled to pay to the lender instead. As such, borrowers lose not only the money they borrowed but also some or all of their properties.

While lenders may sound harsh in claiming payments, they are also open to negotiations to enable the borrower to pay the loan. This is because resorting to legal means is not always beneficial to them. This process of negotiation is known as loan modification.


Loan modification is a long-term process wherein a lender makes changes in some of the terms and conditions of an unpaid loan because the borrower is unable to pay it. Loans are obtained by making an agreement between the lender and the borrower. This agreement contains the date or term on which the loan must be paid, the interest rate to be charged, and other terms and conditions agreed upon. Loan modification seeks to change these items to enable the borrower to repay the loan.


Long Island Loan modification involves changing the following items in an agreement:

1. Term of payment

A borrower may not be able to repay the loan because the term agreed upon may be too short. For example, someone who borrowed $120,000 to be paid within a year at 3.3% per annum may find it difficult to pay up because this requires him to pay $10,000 per month. Long Island Loan modification allows for changes in the term of payment to give flexibility and allowance, making it easier for the borrower to manage his expenses while paying the loan.

2. Interest rate

Also, a borrower may not be able to repay the loan because the interest rate charged by the lender is high in relation to his financial capacity. For example, someone who borrowed $50,000 to be paid within two years at 6% per annum may be at a disadvantage, considering that the lending rate in the United States is at 3.3% per annum. Long Island Loan modification could involve changes in the interest rate to make it easier and less burdensome for him to pay his debt.

3. Mortgage/foreclosure clauses

Mortgage or foreclosure clauses are statements in a loan agreement that allow lenders to go after the property of the borrowers if they are unable to pay the loan. Long Island Loan modification opens these clauses to minor adjustments, removing fears of having one’s property taken. In some cases, the modification removes these clauses to further entice the borrower to pay the loan.


There’s no denying that loan modification seeks to make it easier for the borrower to pay his loans. It does not only allow the payment of loans; it also builds a stronger relationship between lenders and borrowers.